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“People shouldn’t be afraid of their government. Governments should be afraid of their people.”
“Behind this mask there is more than just flesh. Beneath this mask there is an idea… and ideas are bullet proof”. –Alan Moore, V for Vendetta
In England, the 5th of November is considered Guy Fawkes Day. It is also known as Gunpowder Treason Day and Bonfire Night. Guy Fawkes involvement in the infamous Gunpowder Plot has been commemorated every year since 1606 with fireworks, bonfires, and the burning of effigies resembling Guy Fawkes himself. Originally, Londoners were encouraged to celebrate the King’s fortunate escape from assassination by lighting bonfires across the city. When that was coupled with the various Gunpowder Plot sermons held annually since then, along with the nursery rhyme dutifully taught to every English child, the hope was to ensure that each new generation of people born in England understood that acts of treason, especially this one, would never be forgotten. And for lasting over 400 years, that goal was certainly accomplished.
However, Guy Fawkes Day, and the 5th of November has begun to take on a new meaning in recent years. Rather than being remembered for treason, his story has begun to transform and take on the meaning of patriotic dissent. What Guy Fawkes represented in England was similar to that of John Brown the Abolitionist in the United States. Both at the time were executed for plotting and working against the established government, and many people of the time believed it to be right and just when these men were executed.
However, as the years have passed by, their stories have now begun to be both told and understood in a much different light. But this isn’t by happenstance, and is more due to design. Figure heads and symbols are needed for any movement in order to inspire and give meaning. Guy Fawkes, at least for today’s generations, is viewed as being far less cynical and nefarious as he once was. He has quite literally turned into a folk hero, whose image alone stands for fighting against inequality, injustice, and for freedom. But how did this come to be? I would argue there are two main reasons for this, which we will get into shortly. But first, for those that don’t know the story, let us clarify exactly what Guy Fawkes did and why he is remembered for his deeds today.
In 1604, a small group of English Catholics led by Robert Catesby, planned on assassinating the Protestant King James of England. The group consisted of around fourteen conspirators; Guy Fawkes, Robert Wintour, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Christopher Wright, John Wright, Francis Tresham, Everard Digby, Ambrose Rookwood, Thomas Bates, Robert Keyes, Hugh Owen, John Grant, and Robert Catesby.
The motivation for the plot originated from the expectation that King James would be far more tolerant of Catholics in the country. However this proved to not be the case, and rather he had ordered all Catholic priests to leave England. This deeply upset many Catholics in the country as you could imagine, and it was decided by this group of conspirators that they would kill King James and replace him with his daughter, third in line of succession to the throne, who was also Catholic herself. The plan was simply to blow up Parliament, King James, along with everyone else that was sitting in the House of Parliament at the same time using 36 barrels of gunpowder hidden in a cellar under the House of Lords.
They were able to shuttle these gunpowder barrels into the cellar from a house they had rented across the street from the Houses of Parliament. However, before the plan could be executed, a Member of Parliament, Lord Monteagle was tipped off and told to stay away. It’s still unsure as to who warned him, but the conspirators as a whole worried that certain members of Parliament who were catholic would be present when the explosion was to occur, Lord Monteagle being one of them.
Monteagle subsequently warned King James, and around midnight on November 5th, the King sent guards to inspect the cellars. Guy Fawkes at the time was standing guard that night, and upon leaving his post he was apprehended and arrested. Found in the cellar were the barrels of gunpowder hidden under piles of firewood and coal.
At the time Fawkes gave his name as John Johnson and was interrogated by members of the King’s Privy Chamber. He was defiant at first and refused to give up any information, however one day after his arrest on November 6th, and after being tortured, he eventually told them what he knew. He mentioned that his intentions were “to blow you Scotch beggars back to your native mountains” and that he deeply regretted not being able to do so. King James himself even took note and had admiration for Fawkes firm constitution, stating that he possessed a “Romans resolution”. However, he was still a traitor, and his punishment along with seven other known conspirators was death. Fawkes himself was executed in the most brutal way anyone could care to fathom. He was hung, drawn, and quartered. This punishment reflected the serious crime of treason he was found guilty of.
Up until the mid to late 1800s, the image and portrayal of Guy Fawkes was as a nefarious and plotting traitor. However eventually his story began being told in a more sympathetic light and tales were written about him as essentially a failed hero. Fast forward to today and Fawkes has become a major icon in modern political culture. His image alone is now the symbol for both anarchism against corrupt governments and tyranny wherever it stands. In England, and perhaps part in jest, Guy Fawkes is toasted as “the last man to enter Parliament with honest intentions.”
This is no doubt in part due to him being glorified in both the comic book series and motion picture, V for Vendetta. Where the face of Guy Fawkes is worn as a mask by the hero V, and who fought against the fictional fascist English State. But a larger social movement uses that same image to represent the same meaning as that in the stories. The collective Hacktivist organization Anonymous uses the mask to both remain anonymous, but to also get the point across that what they do is representational of the sacrifice Fawkes made in order to fight against what he believed to be injustice.
Again, the meaning behind an image or symbol is often more powerful than the statement being made itself. So I firmly believe that when movements such as the 99%, or organizations such as Anonymous use the image of Fawkes, it adds more meaning to what they believe and are fighting for. For instance, John Browns final statement, “I am as content to die for God’s eternal truth on the scaffold as in any other way” is moving to say the least. If a person or groups of people are looking for motivation, what better form than that of a man or woman willing to give life and limb for what they believe in? If their reasoning and purpose can be likened to what is being fought for today, it only makes sense to adopt or use those supposed fallen and failed heroes as standards or icons to inspire.
It just so happens that the 400 year old story of Guy Fawkes, and the tails that surround him, was enough to inspire people today. It’s unknown exactly if the perception of his image will change in the future, or if it will be tainted by people who actually intend to do people harm. As it stands now, that has not necessarily been the case. But either way, and in no time soon will the people forget… to Remember, Remember, the 5th of November. It’s just that how it is remembered has dramatically changed, and probably to the grand dismay of King James.
The author of this article is Damien S. Wilhelmi. If you enjoyed this piece you can follow me on Twitter @CustParadigm. When I’m not writing about how the perception of history can be changed, I can be found working for one of the best Criminal Defense Attorneys in Colorado. A man Guy Fawkes himself would have been lucky to have defend him.
Although the Olympic legacy is still being questioned; there is no doubt that there have been plenty of positives from last year’s stunning London games. Not only have large areas of the capital received much needed regeneration but certain sports have had an encouraging injection of participation as stars of the future take their first steps on the road to greatness.
One of the biggest positives from the games has been the affect they have had on women’s sport. With so much success from Britain’s female contingent and the fact that every country that competed at the Olympics were represented by women athletes shows that this side of the sport is really on the up.
So what other signs have we seen that show women’s sport is growing?
More Media Coverage –
There was a time in recent years where if you wanted to watch female sport on television you would be lucky to find much more than a few highlights on unconventional channels. Occasionally the red button service may be graced with some high profile events but this was a rarity and far from mainstream media coverage.
However since the games things has taken a turn for the better. The women’s European championships were shown in full on BBC 3 for the first time ever and everybody could read about England’s plight in the national newspapers (even if it didn’t make for great reading due to their poor performance). Women’s cricket has also received much more detailed coverage and this year’s Ashes competition can even be seen on mainstream channels.
More Clubs Are opening Their Doors –
It has always been a lot harder for young girls to find their way into sports clubs than it is for boys to but that seems to be changing too. Local sports clubs, who previously didn’t have the resources or desire to open their doors up to young ladies who wish to pursue a sporting hobby, are now creating more and more openings for girl’s teams. For example, football coaching for girls has received a massive boost in participation thanks to grass roots clubs around the country realising the demand and interest is definitely there.
There Are More Female Role Models In the Public Eye –
For years now the sporting landscape in this country has been dominated by male sporting idols; leaving young girls struggling to find appropriate role models to look up to. However, thanks to increased success and media coverage, there are now plenty of female personalities on our TV screens. People like Jessica Ennis and Ellie Symonds have become ambassadors for their respective sports and can often be seen offering important insights into the female side of sport on popular programmes.
BT sport seem to be leading the way in this respect with Claire Balding hosting a prime time talk show, a heavy female presence on their panel shows and selected games from the women’s premier league being shown.
Increased Pressure On Athletes –
You may not think that increased pressure on female athletes is a positive thing but it is a clear sign that their side of sport is increasing in popularity. In the past, not many people would be aware of up and coming tournaments or the participants that are tipped to perform well, and so there wasn’t much pressure on them from the general public or the media. However, now that this has changed people are more aware of what’s going on and therefore the pressure to succeed has increased.
Take the recent European championships for example. When England have crashed out in the past there has been little said about it, but with many more eyes on them this year the team came under increased scrutiny. The same can also be said for the British athletes competing at Moscow 2013.
Chris Mayhew is an avid sports fan and is pleased to see that women’s sport is finally getting the recognition it deserves. He would recommend Sport4Kids to anyone looking for a local sports club that their child can join.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an unfortunate reality in today’s society. While advancements are being made in many areas of health and medicine, STIs continue to be a problem – particularly in England and the UK, where there were around half a million new cases reported in sexual health clinics in 2011.
Infections of this kind can be detrimental to fertility and have serious effects on our long term health – so it’s important to be able to identify the signs of STIs and act upon them if and when they occur. But while many of us are aware with the terms and the names of various STIs, telling the difference between each one and knowing the potential effects they have on our body isn’t something we’re all familiar with.
Here is a brief list of some of the most common offenders, and how to recognize them:
One of the most frequently-occurring sexually transmitted infections in the UK today, chlamydia is not always an easy condition to spot, as it can often be symptomless. In cases where symptoms do occur however, sufferers can expect to experience pain during urination, and discharge. Women may also experience irregular bleeding outside of their menstrual cycle. The condition can lead to inflammatory disease or the urinary tract, and infertility.
Urine tests and genital swabs are used to determine whether a person has chlamydia and, once diagnosed, the condition is treated with antibiotics.
Known more commonly as ‘the clap’, gonorrhea is a bacterial disease which has similar symptoms to chlamydia – burning sensations during urination, penile or vaginal discharge, and irregular vaginal bleeding. Much like chlamydia, this type of infection doesn’t always produce obvious symptoms. If left untreated, gonorrhea can have serious consequences, such as pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility.
Gonorrhoea is diagnosed using a swab test. Once identified, it is treated with a course of antibiotics.
This type of infection is characterized by genital or oral sores, which typically remain present for around a couple of weeks to a month, before clearing up. Other symptoms may occur after this, such as a rash or an irritated throat. The health risks associated with syphilis if it is left untreated are very serious – the condition can lead to strokes, paralysis, or even death.
The key to treating syphilis is to catch it early – once diagnosed, it can be treated with a penicillin injection.
Herpes simplex virus (more commonly known as herpes) is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact and is characterized by oral or genital blisters. While this type of infection may not lead to any serious health issues, the symptoms associated with it often reoccur over the long term and can be quite uncomfortable.
At present there is no cure for HSV, but there are a number of products and medicines which can help to ease symptoms.
The information here is not comprehensive. There are a number of other STIs which can cause serious health issues.
If you think you may have an STI, it is vital to get yourself tested. Speak to your GP or local healthcare professional to find out more.
This Article has been written by steve who has recently recovered from an STD for which he was prescribed Doxycycline Medication. He buys his medication from expressdoctor.co.uk.
If you’ve ever heard of Andy Warhol, you probably know that he was famous for creating canvas pop art. You probably also know that he offered the opinion that in the future, everyone would be famous for fifteen minutes.
Maybe you’ll never be famous, but you can achieve accolades among your family and friends using state-of-the-art technology companies to manipulate pop art photos, creating works of art that will amaze and delight you.
I Guess, But What Is Pop Art?
As you might suspect, “pop art” is short for “popular art.” The pop art movement first came to light in the United States and England in the latter part of the 1950s. It was a rebellion against abstract expressionist art, which pop artists considered to be elitist and meaningless, according to The Warhol.
Artists like Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein pioneered the pop art movement, using common, everyday elements to make a social statement regarding mass consumerism – think of Warhol’s famous soup cans, or his silk-screened celebrity photos. He was essentially taking art away from the elitists and saying, through his work, that art belongs to everyone.
The common theme in pop art is commercialism and the mass market. It makes a statement through the use of common themes and interests. It was also meant to be fun. Now you can share in the fun – it’s never been easier to have a photo converted to pop art.
The common element within the movement of pop art isn’t a technique or style that is shared but a theme that is common among all the artistic pieces that were produced during the era, states Art Lex on Pop Art.
The common theme used is mass market consumerism and the commercial ways of the world. Pop Art utilizes images that are familiar, but within differing contexts, in achieving a positive aesthetic. It may also be used to critique our society in general. Popular Art is based on the things that people are interested in.
Your Photos Could be Famous
It’s easy. All you need is:
You already have photos – pictures of you, your friends and family, your pets. Now you can have fabulous photo pop art quickly and easily. Having a photo converted to pop art is fun. You can custom design your photo into stunning pop art on special sites that will show your family and friends how remarkably creative you can be. Your photos could end up funny, thought-provoking, surreal pop art, or a visual social commentary. Or it could just be a colorful collage for you to hang on your wall. The only limit is your imagination.
Get ready to wow your friends and family – make use of all those cool pictures you’ve archived on your hard drive. You know, the ones that you always meant to do something interesting with. There couldn’t be a better time to do it – current technology means that it’s possible for anyone to have art created. Maybe you won’t be a Lichtenstein or a Warhol, but then again, you’ll have some interesting pop art pictures to display.
The Sky Is the Limit
Were silk-screened soup cans really all that “good”? Maybe not, but they sure got a lot of attention. You know how they say everyone has at least one book in them? Well, everyone has one work of art in them, too – at least one. And once you find out how easy and how fulfilling having your own pop art made can be, maybe you won’t stop at just one.
Anja Koester is a writer for PaintYourLife.com where you can put your pictures on canvas or find classic art reproductions for decorating your home.
Estimated reading time: 3 minutes, 17 seconds. Contains 657 words
Although women have worked in the field of medicine as nurses and midwives since the dawn of civilization, the history of female physicians is relatively short. The following are several famous female doctors representing the history of women in medicine from several different countries.
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
Elizabeth Blackwell was born in England in 1821 and moved to America as a child. Motivated to practice medicine by the death of a close friend, she enrolled in a dozen medical schools before finally being admitted to the Geneva Medical College in New York. Dr. Blackwell graduated in 1849, becoming the first woman to be awarded a degree in medicine. Finding employment opportunities for women physicians to be non-existent, Dr. Blackwell, along with her sister, Dr. Emily Blackwell, and German-born physician Dr. Marie Zakrzewska, opened a health care facility in New York City in 1857. The New York Infirmary for Women and Children treated patients and later included a school to train more women doctors. Despite losing the sight in one eye, Dr. Blackwell practiced medicine until the late 1870s. After retiring, she continued to advocate for women in medicine.
This bench is a memorial to Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell.
Dr. Virginia Apgar
Born in New York City in 1909, Virginia Apgar faced the double challenge of studying medicine at a time when it was primarily reserved for men while also trying to endure the financial ravages of the Great Depression. After years of training as an anesthesiologist, Dr. Apgar landed a job at Columbia University where she became the first woman to be named a full professor. Although Dr. Apgar was trained in anesthesiology, she is best known for the system of evaluating the health of newborns that she developed. Based on several factors, including the heart rate, color, reflex response and breathing, the Apgar test has become a standard for determining which newborns require additional attention and care immediately after birth.
Dr. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
One of twelve children of a London businessman, young Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was inspired to pursue a career in medicine by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and in 1865 became the first woman in England to work as a physician. Dr. Anderson was ahead of her time, marrying and raising a family while continuing to work as a doctor. Like Dr. Blackwell, Dr. Anderson also founded a women’s hospital, the New Hospital for Women, an institution which only employed female physicians. After retiring from medicine in 1902, Dr. Anderson pursued a career in local politics, adding another first to her list of accomplishments by becoming the first female mayor in England.
Dr. Nancy Dickey
A native of South Dakota, Dr. Nancy Dickey completed her medical degree at the University of Texas in 1976. After working as a family practitioner for several years, Dr. Dickey became an associate professor at Texas A&M University in 1996. In 1998, she was named the first woman director the American Medical Association at the young age of 48. Dr. Dickey is currently employed as vice chancellor of health affairs at Texas A&M University.
Dr. Roberta Bondar
Dr. Roberta Bondar is accomplished in multiple fields, including neurology and for her work in the United States space program. Dr. Bondar was born in Canada in 1945 and studied at several Canadian universities, obtaining a degree in neurology in 1977. Dr. Bondar worked for NASA for a decade, studying how space travel and unfamiliar environments affect the human brain. In 1992, she even traveled into space on the shuttle Discovery. Dr. Bondar currently works as a professor, serves on several Canadian and international advisory panels and is still licensed to practice medicine in both Canada and the United States.
Many women have played important roles in medicine throughout history and continue to do so on a daily basis.
Jennifer Green is a medical assistant who enjoys writing about the roles that women play in medicine. Jennifer recommends checking out the best online medical assistant degrees for anyone interested in starting a career as a medical assistant.
If you’ve not been to a silent disco yet then it’s about time you changed that! Popular at festivals and nightclubs alike, silent discos are a relatively new craze that more and more people are getting into. It’s like nothing you have ever experienced before! So if you love music, you love dancing, and you love trying out new things, then it’s about time you boogied on up to your first silent disco – you won’t look back!
A silent disco is just that – silent – to everybody expect you! You go along to a venue or a tent, and you get given a set of quality headphones on your way in. These have a control on them where you can tune into different frequencies. Then, you enter the disco, and flick through the music that is on offer until you find something you’d like to dance to. The music comes up really loud in your ears, giving you the impression that everybody else is listening to it too. But they’re not! They are busy dancing away to their own soundtrack that could be the same as yours, or it could not! The end result is a room full of people with headphones on, all dancing to different rhythms and sounds. It’s bonkers – but it always goes down a storm!
Well, firstly it’s definitely got the novelty factor! So, if you and your friends are feeling like doing something a little different, then this will tick all the boxes. Because it is silent, it is very neighbour-friendly, so it attracts very few complaints, if any, from anybody nearby. Festivals often hold silent discos at night when younger kids are sleeping – the adults can still have their fun without waking them up! DJs love it because it gives them a chance to compete with each other – they see how many people are dancing to their tracks compared to other DJs’ tracks.
Although silent discos were happening in some form or another, years ago, they only came to prominence in 2005 when the famous Glastonbury festival in England held a huge one; using wireless headsets. Now it’s popular for corporate parties, festivals, venues and even at village halls. Everybody is getting on board!
The silent disco has given people loads of ideas for other ways to have silent parties. Bands have held ‘silent’ gigs, crowds gather in busy shopping centers with their headphones to ‘flash mob’ in the streets by dancing en masse. In 2008, a venue in London held a ‘battle of the bands’ which was completely silent, putting two bands on at the same time at either end of the room and letting the audience choose their favourite via their headphones.
Silent discos are going to grow in popularity – there’s no doubt. With ever-improving technology, headphones are getting better and better, so it’s only a matter of time before every single festival in the land offers this option! Shh!
Today’s feature writer, Jenny Wadlow, is a freelance blogger who writes about various topics that interest her. She is a fan of electronic music and suggests getting the best headset so that you can feel their deep bass. She is an outgoing person and likes to be with friends.
If you enjoy a good, gritty and powerful urban film then these 6 movies are bound to both entertain and stay with you long after the closing credits.
Urban films are rich in the culture of inner-city life and bring this kicking and screaming to our screens. Life in urban societies is portrayed in all its dark, bleak and violent reality with many of the settings, dialogue, characters and storylines recognizable to young city dwellers of today.
Ed Norton stars in this urban film about racism on the streets. Based around the lives of two brothers, Derek (Ed Norton) and Daniel (Edward Furlong), the film follows Derek’s descent into the neo-Nazi movement after their father is killed by a black drug dealer. Before long, Derek is sent to prison for killing two black gang members who were trying to break into his truck. He undergoes a change of outlook because of his experience in prison and when he is released he tries to save his younger brother from following in his destructive footsteps.
Violent and gripping, Ray Winstone plays Carlin, a young offender who’s moved to a new borstal where he’s bullied by the guards and inmates. So he decides to carry out random acts of violence to boost his standing and soon becomes the “daddy”, the boss of the trade in money and cigarettes. The extent of the violent content caused the BBC to have worries and led to the director Alan Clarke cutting the original film for cinema release. Portraying the brutality of life inside a British prison, Scum was one of the most controversial films of the early 1980s but has since become a classic urban movie.
This popular French film is set in one of the districts of Paris that has been separated from the main center due to the levels of violence – these districts are now in the hands of gangs. When District 13 takes a truck with a nuclear weapon on board, the intention is to sell it to the highest bidder but the trouble is the clock is ticking and in 24-hours the weapon will detonate, so the gang points it at the heart of Paris and demands big bucks. A lone cop is sent in who teams up with a gang member to track down the weapon and disarm it before it explodes.
About life in urban America, this film tells the story of childhood friends growing up on the mean streets of East Birmingham in Los Angeles, and reveals that not everyone is able to escape the hood alive.
Stark and disturbing, this tale of England by director Shane Meadows centers on a 12-year-old boy Shaun who is growing up in poverty in the 1980s. Taken under the wing of a group of skinheads, relations are soon strained when a racist gang member Combo is released from jail. The gang splits in two as Combo fights to be leader, and Shaun chooses to go with him rather than the other gang leader Woody and events turn dark and brutal with shocking consequences.
Set in north London, this bleak portrayal of urban life sees the day-to-day struggles of 15-year-old Londoner Trife as he struggles to choose between the path he knows he should take and a life of guns and violence.
Article Provided By: The Alternative Store sell urban clothing from brands such as Crooks & Castles.
With 2012 being a leap year it means women up and down the country could get ready to turn tradition on its head and propose to the man in their life. February 29 is the one day when women are “allowed” to pop the question to their other half. So if you’re looking to leap to action this February and ask your dithering boyfriend to tie the knot, then here are four ideas for the best places to do it. Forget romantic walks and champagne boat rides, these are the places where plenty of men feel happiest, making them perfect destinations for that proposal with a difference.
Wembley Stadium, London
Many a man has dreamed of setting foot on the hallowed turf of Wembley Stadium. It is a place where heroes are made and memories created. Behind-the-scenes tours give visitors the chance to follow in the footsteps of their sporting idols, seeing the dressing rooms and walking up the famous Wembley steps. Take your man down to England’s national stadium and he will already be in dreamland, so in the perfect mood for romance as you get down on one knee underneath the iconic arch in one of the world’s finest footballing arenas.
The Old Course, St Andrews, Scotland
You can’t get much more romantic than the sea air, dramatic cliffs, endless stretches of sandy beach, crumbling castles and log fires. But as well as all that, St Andrews is also known as the Home of Golf and boasts one of the most famous courses in the world. Golfing enthusiasts will love a surprise trip to see the famed fairways and iconic clubhouse, while there will be plenty of romantic and rustic spots for you to pop the question.
For petrol head husbands-to-be, the chance to race around the home of the British Grand Prix would be the ultimate thrill. Driving experience days are available at tracks around the country giving visitors the chance to get behind the wheel of vintage racing cars or high performance vehicles, but taking to the track at Silverstone is perhaps the pinnacle for budding Jenson Buttons. Treat your other half to a couple of laps and he will yours for the taking.
The River Severn, Shropshire
The River Severn snakes through quintessential countryside in the heart of the country and is the perfect place to enjoy some romantic peace and quiet. Try hiring a Canadian canoe for two and you’ll combine action and adventure with picturesque serenity in the bracing air of the countryside. The two of you will be able to paddle away to your own bit of river, perfect for a cosy picnic and for you to make your proposal away from prying eyes. Plus, if he panics there’ll be nowhere for him to escape too!
This article has been produced by Activity Superstore, providers of Gift Ideas for men, women and couples. Whether your looking for anniversary gift ideas or an extra special birthday gift, Activity Superstore can help.